Beavers, Beaver-Based Restoration, and Climate Change
Naiman, R. J., C. A. Johnston, and J. C. Kelley. 1988. Alteration of North American Streams by beaver: the structure and dynamics of streams are changing as beaver recolonize their historic habitat. BioScience38 (11). Available online:
Beechie, T., H. Imaki, J. Greene, A. Wade, H. Wu, G. Pess, P. Roni, J. Kimball, J. Stanford, P. Kiffney, and N. Mantua. 2013. Restoring salmon habitat for a changing climate. River Res. Applic. 29:939-960. Available online:
Pollock, M. M., T. J. Beechie, J. M. Wheaton, C. E. Jordan, N. Bouwes, N. Weber, and C. Volk. 2014. Using beaver dams to restore incised stream ecosystems. BioScience Vol. 64 No. 4: 279-290. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261215514_Using_Beaver_Dams_to_Restore_Incised_Stream_Ecosystems
Bouwes, N., N. Weber C. E. Jordan, W. C. Saunders, I. A. Tattam, C. Volk, J. M. Wheaton, and M. Pollock. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead. Available online:
NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region. 2016. Proposed ESA Recovery Plan for Snake River Idaho Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Populations. Chapter 6: Idaho Snake River Steelhead Status and Recovery. Availalbe online:
See “Floodplain connectivity / Riparian Vegetation” in Table 6.2-8, “Management Objectives to Address Limiting Factors”. Reintroduction of beavers and installation of Beaver Dam Analogues are specifically cited in that Habitat Attribute; but of course, using BDAs to restore floodplain connectivity will also increase floodplain storage, raise the groundwater elevation, contribute cool water to streams during summer base flows, restore wetlands, improve establishment and survival of riparian vegetation, etc., which are other cited Management Objectives in the table.
Weber, N., N. Bouwes, M. M. Pollock, C. Volk, J. M. Wheaton, G. Wathen, J. Wirtz, and C. E. Jordan. 2017. Alteration of stream temperature by natural and artificial beaver dams. Available online: