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Grand Fir (Abies grandis) is also known as White, Silver, Balsam, or Piss Fir. It is common in moist forests, stream bottoms, valleys, and lower mountain slopes. It prefers North-facing slopes and can grow in a variety of soil types. It is very shade tolerant, especially when young. It is a dominant climax species in some habitat types and a long-lived seral species in others. Grand Fir is the most popular species for Christmas trees in the Northwest because of its thick-foliage, symmetry, deep green shiny color, and strong, orangish fragrance. Fun fact, Grand fir is the tallest known fir species!

Height: Up to 260'

Needles: 1-1.5" dark green above, pale with stripe below, grow in 2 flat rows

Cones: 2-4" cylindrical, borne upright on tree

USDA PLANTS Database Link

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Red Alder (Alnus rubra) is also known as Pacific Coast Alder, Oregon Alder, or Western Alder. It is native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. Local populations grow near the Lower Clearwater, the St. Joe, Pend Oreille, and Coeur D'alene. Red Alder provides browsing for deer and elk, and the seeds remain on the tree well into the fall and winter months, providing food for many birds and small mammals. Beavers eat the bark and build dams with the stems. It is a fast growing, single stemmed, deciduous tree. The bark is thin, smooth, and ashy-grey to greyish-brown, and often covered with white lichen as it gets older. The inner bark is reddish-brown. The leaves are alternate, dark green, simple and broadly ovate. They are 6 to 15 cm long with a pointed tip, serrated or softly lobed, and rolled under slightly. The undersides of the leaves are rusty colored and covered with fine soft hairs. The abundant seeds are wind dispersed from May to the winter months.

Height: Up to 60'

Solar Exposure: Full-sun

Bloom Color: Red catkins grow in clusters of 2-4.

Bloom Time: Catkins appear in Spring, before or with the leaves.

USDA PLANTS Database Link

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California False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum) is also known as Corn Lily, California Corn Lily, White False Hellebore, Cow Candy, and Cow Cabbage. It is native to the Western states in North America and grows in moist, open meadows and hillsides. It is poisonous to insects and pregnant livestock, mainly sheep. It's leaves are alternate, heavily veined, and bright green. It grows from a bulb with rhizomes, and spreads by mast seeding.

Life Cycle: Perennial

Height: 3' to 6'

Solar Exposure: Part-Shade to Full Sun

Bloom Color: Creamy-white

Bloom Time: Spring

USDA PLANTS Database Link

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